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Mon, Oct 23, 2017, 8:20:38 AM
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Ministry for the Environment

The Ministry is the Government's principal adviser on environmental sustainability and international matters that affect the environment. The environment supports New Zealand’s economy based on natural resources, the health of our people, and our quality of life. At the same time, the health of the environment is affected by the way every New Zealander behaves.  

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Hypothermia

Hypothermia – what is it?

Hypothermia is when the body core becomes cold. While the temperature of the environment and the skin can fluctuate to a large degree, the inner body core temperature must remain constant. If the core temperature fluctuates up or down by as little as 1°, then major medical problems can result.

In cold air or water the skin and the external tissues become cooled rapidly and a person can feel very cold, however it takes 10-15 minutes before the core organs are affected. Shivering adjusts core temperature in mild cases, as does exercise and food intake.

Disorientation and loss of consciousness occur when the core temperature has dropped from the normal 37° to approximately 32°C-30°C. Death, caused by heart failure, can be the result of core temperature dropping below 30°C

When in the water hypothermia has a more indirect way of causing death. Long before the core temperature has dropped to below 30°C the loss of consciousness from hypothermia will have caused the victim to submerge and drown. Wearing a life jacket will prevent submersion and, in some cases, even provide protection from hypothermia itself.

Prevention

Any kind of participation in activates in and around water, not just accidental entry into the water, increases the possibility of hypothermia. Beware of hypothermia when canoeing, fishing or swimming outdoors.

In all cases of “man overboard”, presume that hypothermia will be a possibility

  • Wear many layers of cloths, both in and out of the water. The more wind or waterproof clothing is the better
  • If setting out in cold, wet windy conditions be on the continual lookout for symptoms of exhaustion or hypothermia in others (refer “symptoms’)
  • The greatest amount of heat is lost through the top of the head and the backs of hands. Have a hat and pair of gloves to pit on if necessary.
  • Prevent excessive fatigue as it can contribute to hypothermia.
  • Eat or drink high-energy foods frequently.
  • If possible keep warm and dry. There are now also good quality materials, such as polypropylene, which keep you warm when wet, and are excellent for canoeing etc.

Survival in the water

Keep still

Swimming will make you feel warmer, however this is a false sensation. Energy is spent on activity rather than maintaining warmth so eventually the body core will become even colder.

Air is warmer than water

The body looses heat at a greater rate in water than in air of the same temperature, even though the chill factor may feel greater. If you find yourself in the water with floating objects, e.g., the upturned boat, then raise as much of the torso as possible out of the water.

Hypothermia first aid

Get the victim out of the water and into a warm and sheltered environment. First Aid for hypothermia varies greatly depending on the mildness or severity of the case. In many cases coldness and exhaustion are mistaken for mild hypothermia and vice versa. In both instances some warm nourishing food, warm clothes and mild exercise will increase core body temperature.

Carry low reading thermometer for use in suspected hypothermia cases.

Mild Cases

  • Warm, sweet drinks
  • Keep moving.
  • Warm clothes.
  • Mild heat source.

Moderate Cases

  • Same as above

If that does not work or the case is more severe:

  • Limit exercise.
  • Provide warm, sweet drinks only if victim is fully conscious.
  • Have victim checked by a doctor if possible.

Severe cases

  • The victim may behave irrationally and fight attempts to help. Ignore that and do what is necessary.
  • Time is a key factor. In severe cases of hypothermia attempts to rewarm the victim require expert knowledge. If help is available within an hour do not attempt to rewarm the victim yourself. This can be dangerous. Keep the victim stable and treat with extreme gentleness (Rough handling can cause cardiac arrest). Put them in the recovery position and elevate the feet. Send for expert help.
  • If help is more than an hour away then you have no choice but to attempt to rewarm the victim yourself. This must be done gently and slowly. Violent heat shocks, such as putting the person in a hot bath, can cause death.
  • Send for expert help.
  • No food or drink if there is any sign of unconsciousness.
  • Apply mild heat to the chest region only, e.g., warm hot water bottles wrapped in towels.
  • Do not attempt to rewarm limbs, e.g., feet, hands, arms or legs (This can cause the blood to flow to the limbs and away from the core where it is needed.)
  • Transport to hospital as soon as possible.

Critical cases

It is important that rewarming only happen in the field if expert help is more than an hour away.

Critical hypothermia can appear close to death.  Do not assume that someone is dead until the person is “warm and dead”. In other words continue to attempt to rewarm the victim even if they appear dead.

  • Send for expert help.
  • Handle with extreme care.
  • Tilt the head back to open the airway. Look, listen and feel for a pulse and breathing.
  • If there is any pulse, no matter how faint, do not give CPR. Keep a close watch on the pulse and breathing and be ready to give EAR or CPR if necessary.
  • Begin rewarming with mild external heat, e.g., wrapped warm hot water bottles, other people’s body heat.
  • Do not rewarm limbs
  • Exhale warm breath onto victims face so that they breathe in warm air.
  • Body core temperature lags behind skin temperature during rewarming. Keep the victim protected for an extended period, even after apparent full recovery or medical help arrives. It can take hours and even days to return to a normal, stable temperature. Do no re-expose to cold in that time.
  • Medical help is imperative and hospitalisation essential in severe and critical cases of hypothermia.

 

 
Engineers

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 Hamiltonjet New Zealand
The trusted name behind Jet Boating for over 50 years 

www.hamiltonjet.co.nz/hjnz
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We won't compromise on your jet boating experience and needs 

• Part boat & full turn-key options
• Waterjets
• Spare parts
• Service & Advice

Hamiltonjet New Zealand
20 Lunns Road, Christchurch
Ph +64 3 962 0505


 

POWER EQUIPMENT
Diesel Engines, Generators, Air Conditioning & Engineering

 www.powerequipment.co.nz

North Island Ph. +64 9 358 2050
South Island Ph. +64 3 383 4399


 

Gulf Harbour Marine Trade Services | www.gulf-harbour.co.nz

 

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TRAVEL LIFT/HARDSTAND

GULF HARBOUR TRAVEL LIFT & HARDSTAND

+64 9 424 6204 


DRYSTACK

GULF HARBOUR DRYSTACK
Drystack boat storage with unlimited launch and retrievals.
7 day operation
+64 9 424 6200 This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


PAINTERS

HIBISCUS MARINE COATINGS
Yacht painting. World class, local price
+64 9 428 3906
www.hibiscusmarinecoatings.co.nz


BUILDERS

BRIN WILSON BOAT BUILDERS
Ph: +64 9 424 1719
www.brinwilsonboats.co.nz


RIGGERS

GULF HARBOUR RIGGING
Ph: +64 9 424 1320
www.yachtrigging.co.nz


OSMOSIS

OSMOSIS SOLUTIONS LTD
Ph: +64 9 424 0833
Mob: Bob 021 428 070
www.osmosis.co.nz


COVERS/ UPHOLSTERY

GULF HARBOUR COVERS & MARINE INTERIORS
Ph: +64 9 424 1219
www.gulfharbourcovers.co.nz


FUEL

24/7 Self Service Unleaded 95 & Diesel
Call PL for Discounted Fuel Cards
Marina / Vehicles
Ph: 0800 428 383
www.petroleumlogistics.co.nz


BERTHAGE / VISITORS

Berths available 10.5m to 50m
Ownership, Long term rental or Casual stays
4.2 MLWS, Vessel Management
Fuel Jetty & Dockmaster assistance available 24 hours.


ENGINEERS

MARINE SOLUTIONS GULF HARBOUR
Ph: +64 9 424 1260
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www.msgh.co.nz


ELECTRICIANS

ENERTEC MARINE SYSTEMS LTD
+64 9 414 4730
www.enertecmarinesystems.com


ELECTRONICS

GULF HARBOUR ELECTRONICS
Ph: +64 9 428 0863
www.ghe.net.nz


BROKERS

GULF GROUP MARINE BROKERS
Yacht, Launch and Marina Sales Valuations - Marine Insurance
Ph: +64 9 424 1633
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www.gulfgroup.co.nz


CHANDLERY

BURNSCO MARINE & LEISURE
Burnsco Marine & Leisure
Ph: +64 9 424 1092
www.burnsco.co.nz


CAFE

RIPPLES CAFE
Open 7 days 6.30am til late
Ph: +64 9 424 1860


Pine Harbour

pine harbour electrical

Ph. +64 9 536 6177 or 021 791 861
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www.phe.co.nz

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Specialist Custom Boat Builders Build your ultimate dream boat
Ph: +64 9 536 6710 or 027 277 3056 
Email: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it
www.johnsonyachts.co.nz

 


 
Visiting Vessels

If you are planning on visiting and sailing in New Zealand go to our Destination New Zealand E-book  for all the information you need to guide you through the rules and regulations and to assist you in planning your visit.

This book contains information on:
·         Tourism and business
·         Immigration
·         Berthage and pilotage
·         Customs
·         Biosecurity
·         And more!

Find out more here: www.nzmarine.com 

Biofouling: 
From May 2018 all vessels arriving in New Zealand will need
to have a clean hull. Check here for biofouling requirements for
your vessel type.

 
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